Article: COP 21 e a incorporac?a?or strate?gica to Amazo?nia the national project of development

3 the December the 2015 - Article Eduardo Taveira, technical and scientific superintendent of the Amazonas Sustainable Foundation

 
Sustainable Development Reserve (Reserve) Reserve | Photo: Neil Palmer / CIAT

Think the Amazon sustainable development permeates primarily by integrating the region's national development strategies. No entanto, the possibility that such integration is founded on projects, programs and actions to ensure and understand the cultural complexities, social, historical and geographical are still bleak. There is little clarity on the direction set for national development, to consider as strategic forest maintenance standing.

This scenario becomes even more prominent, with recent deforestation reduction targets proposed for Amazon, announced by Brazil to the COP 21, em Paris. There is no doubt about the strategic role that the Amazon will have to continue the national economic growth and transnational. The challenge, so, It is to do it in an integrated and innovative way.

Even in the recent economic recession scenario, the contradictions between maintaining regional biodiversity, environmental conservation and development of traditional economic activities remain focused on tensions related to sustainable regional development. Especially because the main pressures on the Amazon continue from agricultural expansion, da aGRIBUSINESS, mining enterprises and other usual, ou historian, Classical modalities for production of wealth from the land use.

It is no exaggeration to say that the development model pursued for the Amazon is challenging, innovative and, mainly, Single. There is not a single developed country, with geo-climatic conditions similar to Brazil, its economy is rooted in the innovative use of natural resources, mainly forest-based, serve as benchmark for or country.

?, so, a paradigmatic effort that falls on the Amazon, not only by the complexity itself to bear it, but mainly by discouraging scenario surrounding the short scientific history of the region. There is little intellectual capital and low production of knowledge capable, currently, to support any change. There are also, no strategic plan designed for the region to give bases, although rudimentary, for effective sustainability of this new model. History has shown that opt ????for the easy way out can be a tragedy in the medium and long term.

In Last decade, Brazil has emerged as one of the largest producers of knowledge in the world, However stopped insignificant compared the performance patent numbers generated in the same period. Although considered a weak indicator for identifying the innovation of bias in a country, contrast to the innovation producing countries, as US and Japan, It puts us in an even more difficult position to promote change at all levels. Furthermore, scientific development indicators for the northern region are negligible. There is low installed capacity to think endogenous models and alternative use of forest resources for sustainable development.

This scenario is the result largely of the model chosen by Brazil for scientific development and national innovation. All scientific indicators generated to date prove the concentration and centralization of investments in CT&I in the southeast and south of the country. According to the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, historical regional inequalities created obstacles that limited generation, transfer and intensive CT&I for economic development and equitable social across country.

The regional distribution of federal public spending on science function & Technology, estimated based on the Federal Budget, remained, in 2010, highly concentrated: 1,1% no North; 6,3% in the Northeast; 77,5% not Sudeste; 11,8% in the south; until 3,4% no Midwest (MCTI, 2012). That is, a regional distribution well below potential given the share of GDP and the population of some regions in the national total, in the case of the Northern Region is 5,3%. See also the successors cuts in the sector, propitiated by the Federal Government, in local research institutes such as the Institute Mamirauá and INPA.

At the same time, Amazon states had low competence, mainly political, to maintain its already scarce scientific capacity to deal with a challenge of this size. The classical models of economic growth in the Amazon are still prevalent, compared to the meager economic development of integrated strategies to the particular characteristics of the region. Although brote, at one time or another, projects aligned with the various regional possibilities, como o Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazônia ?? CBA, all without exception require integration with a broad national project for the Amazon, or that are consolidated as a state policy.

Even with the expansion of expenditures in C&T the country, which is the sum of the Scientific Activities and Technical Correlated (ACTC) and Research and Development activities (P&D), from R $ 15,8 billion, in 2000, to R 85,6 billion in 2013, according to IBGE data. Regional indicators continued to point somewhat fitting backdrop to the changes that Brazil would need to overcome the development model built since the late 70.

And to make matters worse, after 2013, with the successors cadres of economic crisis, the few steps toward this major paradigm shift were totally deconstructed, mainly in the Amazon states that alicerçavam the genesis of the bases for regional scientific development, as Para and Amazonas. This Ultimo with a compounded frame breakdown of CT systems&I and the Environment.

With the current targets presented by Brazil, to reduce the deforestation in the region, arises again the urgency of restructuring of these regional systems. There is broad consensus that a development project for the Amazon will have to be centered on the science, technology and inovation (PCTI ?? Amazon, 2014). Change the nature of relations of extensive and predatory exploitation of natural resources toward more intelligent processes, intensive and sustainable interaction with biodiversity and other natural resources is qualitative transformation factor of regional and national production structure. The ability to provide technology innovation is to have fundamental character for this break.

The challenge is laid. Urge think the Amazon beyond the proposed targets for the reduction of climate impacts in the coming decades. ? the perfect opportunity for government and states commit themselves unequivocally to sustainable forest use.

The goals presented only gain practical sense in that their goals and actions find concrete expression in their policies CT&I and Sustainable Development of the states of the Amazon region and country. However, beyond the COP, is that the Government and the states of the Brazilian Amazon are willing to both?

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